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The election process in India by which people choose their representatives to act on behalf of them in the legislative body by the method of voting. It takes place regularly in any democracy. More than 100 countries in the world in which an election takes place to choose the representors. The process by which people can choose their representatives at regular intervals and change them whenever they want is called the electoral process(election).
In India, elections are held regularly in Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha (Assembly) after every 5 years. The term of all elected representatives come to an end after 5 years. Elections are held in each of the constituencies simultaneously, either on the same day or within a few days is called a General Election.
A By-Election is conducted when there is a vacancy caused due to the death or resignation of a member. India is distributed into several areas for the purpose of elections. These areas are called electoral constituencies. For Lok Sabha, India is divided into 543 constituencies. Some constituencies are reserved for the Scheduled Castes’ citizens, and Scheduled Tribes are called reserved constituencies. 84, 47 seats are reserved for SC and ST, respectively, in the Lok Sabha.
Elections have several functions. These include designation, directly or indirectly, providing feedback between voters and government, expressing public support for or refusal of a regime: providing a means for recruiting political leaders, and making the government answerable to the electorate. Functions may vary in states that have elections without choice, where a party’s monopolistic position makes the outcome a foregone conclusion. The nature of electoral choice in each country is mainly framed by three factors first is an object of the election, second is the party system or the pattern of voting alignments, third is the electoral system.
The voting system is of many types, and according to different countries, different types are used.
|TYPES OF VOTING SYSTEM||PLACES AT WHERE USE|
First Past the Post
Westminster, U.S, India
Single Transferable Vote
Ireland, Malta, Scottish Election, Northern Irish Assembly
Additional Member System
Germany, Scottish Parliament, New Zealand
Two Round System
France, Presidential Election of Many Country
Australia, Irish President
UK Mayors, Police and Crime Commissioners
Party List Proportional Representation
Israel, Brazil, South Africa
Being a sovereign, secular, socialist, democratic republic, the Indian government organizes political electoral systems. The rules of the electoral process govern all facets, including elections, candidates, who can vote, campaigning, ballots, and other factors, of the voting process. As per constitutions and electoral laws, political electoral systems are mainly conducted by election commissions. The number of winners elected varies in different types of elections.
Likewise, for a unique position of the prime minister, president, or governor, electoral systems elect a single winner; and for the members of Parliament, multiple winners are elected.
In August 1947, after attaining Independence, India needed to hold a General Election to elect a truly representative Government based on Universal suffrage. From November 26th, 1949, under article-324 of the constitution, the setting up of the Election Commission as an independent constitutional authority was therefore brought into force. Indian Parliament has passed the first Act on May 12th, 1950 (i.e., Representation of People Act,1950), which provide the preparation of electoral rolls. 2nd Act was passed on July 17th,1951(i.e., Representation of People Act,1951), which provides the procedure for the conduct of elections to both Houses of Parliament and Vidhan Sabha of every State.
The first election for the President post was held in May of the year 1952 after the constitution of the two houses of Parliament and the state legislative assemblies. The election commission adopted the ‘Balloting System’ of voting for the first and second General Elections in 1951-52 and 1957. The commission switched over to the ‘Marking System’ of voting from the third general election in 1962 onwards.
For the 1st time in 1982, the EVMs (Electronic Voting Machines) were used in part of Parur Assembly Constituency in Kerala on an experimental basis. From 1988 the extensive use EVMs was started. In the 14th General Elections of the Lok Sabha, which took place in the year 2004, the Electronic Voting Machines were used at all polling stations for the first time. After that, all elections to Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies have been held using EVMs.
The Current Electoral Process is fair and very effective (one man, one vote) as per democratic view every person who has attended the age of 18 (i.e., age of majority) have right to vote freely and choose their candidate whom they want as their representatives on the assembly. However, sometimes it may not be right for every constituency.
There are many limitations and challenges to the Indian election process because:
As per my knowledge and concern, at last, I want to say and advised that “the current electoral process is fair and free as everyone has the right to choose their respective candidate. However, the worst thing is that most of the voters are selling their votes for money, and they do not even think once before taking the money from the parties.” So make your choice accordingly. Do not elect that person who in future can ruin your life because One Vote Can Change the Result.